Five Civilized Tribes

The Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole Indian Nations were known as the 5 Civilized Tribes because they  adopted European  ways early. Despite their attempts at blending in with Europeans, they were eventually  all removed west of the Mississippi,mostly to what is now Oklahoma. That forced migration  became known  as the Trail of Tears. One of the European  practices was to own African-American slaves. James Patrick  Morgans writes  that only about 2.3 % were slave holders. Henry Bibb wrote that Indian slave practices were not as  punitive  and tough as Europeans. Arkansas and Missouri slave masters  did  not like to buy slaves from Indians because they believed those slaves  were”spoiled.”

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